EAST BRONX HISTORY FORUM
9 WESTCHESTER SQ BRONX, NEW YORK
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Please remember the library in your will or trust.
HUNTINGTON FREE LIBRARY
Saturday, March 17,2013
12:30-3:00 pm Doll Making with Alba Garcia - Alba is a master doll maker and sculptor who is world-renowned for her doll creations and art creatures. This workshop will both fascinate and leave you yearning for more.
Saturday, April 20, 2013
Recycle Art with Star Nigro - Join artist Star Nigro as she shows you cool and clever ways to make
great eco art. Learn to construct a masterpiece by creatively recycling old & new elements. Make ecological art. Fun for everyone!
Please contact the Bronx Council on the Arts to register for these events at
The Huntington Free Library and Reading Room is located at
9 Westchester Square,
Bronx, New York.
Admission to the programs are free. Seating is limited.
Call 718-829- 7770 for directions to the library
Trustees and Officers
Edward A. Morgan, President Emeritus
Paul Esson - Treasurer Emeritus
Thomas X. Casey President
Carl Anderson, Vice President
Jeff P. Jones, Treasurer
Trustees - Edward A. Morgan, Sydney L. Stern, Bill Twomey
Visit the Library
The library’s The Reading Room collection is open to the public by appointment Monday through Friday from 10:00 to 4:00. It is also open by appointment on Saturday mornings when afternoon public programs are scheduled. To make an appointment, call 718-829-7770.
There is no charge for use of the library’s collections.
The Library is open to the public by appointment Monday through Friday from 10:00 to 4:00. It is also open by appointment on Saturday mornings when afternoon public programs are scheduled.
By public transportation
(The Library is about a 45 minute ride from Grand Central Station. It is located at 9 Westchester Square in the Bronx.)
1. Get yourself to the East Side Lexington Avenue Line.
2. You can take the IRT 4 or 5 (Express) as far as 125th Street
3. At 125th Street you must change to the #6. Take the one that says “Pelham
Bay” on the side.
4. Go to Westchester Square (the name of the stop).
5. The Library is right across the street next to the Apple Bank
6. Green wrought iron fence surrounds the building.
7. Go to the door next to the bank, and ring the doorbell.
Note: The Library is next to the Apple Bank. Should you need directions, ask for the bank (otherwise you may be sent elsewhere). We accept a piece of identification from all patrons using our collection, and hold on to it during visits. We also store any large bags patrons bring into the Library while they are here.
Directions to Library by Car
The library is located at 9 Westchester Square in the Bronx.
From New Jersey
1. From George Washington Bridge take Cross Bronx Expressway.
2. Follow Cross Bronx Expressway for about 4 miles going East.
3. Get off at Castle Hill Avenue (Exit 5B).Turn left on Castle Hill, go to elevated
railroad (Westchester Ave.), and turn right.
4. Go past old church and cemetery on right; next left you can take is Overing
Street. Turn left on Overing and park car.
5. Overing runs along the side of the Library. Walk around the corner to the
front and ring bell on door.
From East Side New York:
1. Triborough or Third Avenue Bridge to Bruckner Expressway. Take the
Expressway to Zerega Avenue.
2. Make left onto Zerega
3. Continue to elevated railroad (Westchester Avenue) and turn right.
4. Go past old church and cemetery on right; next left you can take is Overing
Street. Turn left on Overing and park car.
5. Overing runs along the side of the Library. Walk around the corner to the
front and ring bell on door.
From West Side New York:
1. Same as New Jersey but leave out Bridge; can pick up Cross Bronx
Expressway on West Side Highway near George Washington Bridge
From Queens and Brooklyn
1. Cross over Whitestone Bridge.
2. Proceed North, stay in middle lane, following signs for Hutchinson River
3. Go to exit that reads “Westchester Avenue & East Tremont Ave.”
4. Take exit and proceed to traffic light.
5. Turn left at light and go toward elevated railroad (Westchester Ave.—about 3
6 . Right before you get to elevated railroad there is a green highway sign that
says “Westchester Avenue Turns” and takes you to the right. Do that. Turn
left at elevated railroad.
7. Stay under the elevated railroad thru the stop lights. Immediately past the
elevated railroad station, on the far right is Library, next to Apple Bank. You
may turn right on Overing Street and park your car.
8. Ring bell on door
From Upstate: - On Hutchinson River Parkway
1. Take Hutchinson River Parkway South to “Westchester Avenue East Tremont
2. Make left at traffic light.
3. Go to elevated railroad (Westchester Ave.); turn right.
4. Go about three blocks following the elevated railroad past intersection with
East Tremont Avenue.
5. Immediately after entrance to elevated railroad station on the right, look for
the Library on extreme right (next to Apple Bank).
6. You may turn right on Overing Street and park your car.
7. Ring bell on door .
On New England Thruway
1. Get off thruway at Westchester Avenue Exit.
2. Follow Westchester Avenue (elevated railroad) to 1 block past East Tremont
3. Immediately after entrance to elevated railroad station on the right, look for
the Library on extreme right (next to Apple Bank).
4. You may turn right on Overing Street and park your car.
5. Ring bell on door
About the Library
The Huntington Free Library and Reading Room is a privately-endowed library open to the public. It has two separate non-circulating book collections: a general Reading Room collection and a research collection specialization on Bronx history.
The library is an exempt operating foundation, governed by a board of trustees.
The library was officially founded in 1892 by Collis P. Huntington, a Southern Pacific Railroad magnate whose summer home was in nearby Throgs Neck. Its origins, however, were in the will of Peter C. Van Schaick, a local philanthropist, who set aside funds from his estate to build a free reading room to be donated to the citizens of the village of Westchester upon its completion. The library, constructed between 1882 and 1883, was ultimately refused by the local townspeople who did not want to pay for its upkeep. The building sat vacant until Huntington was somehow informed of the stalemate and decided to take over the project. He put on an addition, and the library’s doors opened to the public in 1893. It was the only library for the public in the Westchester Square area of the Bronx until 1937 when the New York Public Library opened a branch across the street.
The library took on an important new role in 1930, when Archer M. Huntington, Collis’s adopted son and benefactor of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, built an addition to the Huntington Free Library to house the museum’s book collection which was transferred to the library.
The 1882-83 red brick reading room was designed by Frederick C. Withers, an architect known for his use of High Victorian Gothic and Gothic Revival styles. The Jefferson Market Courthouse in Greenwich Village and Gallaudet College in Washington, DC, are other examples of his work. When Collis Huntington took over the library in 1890, a local architect, William Anderson, added the rear part of the reading room and the two-story residence above it. The 1882-83 building, with its 1890 addition, was designated a New York City landmark in 1994.
When the library acquired its American Indian collection in 1930, Archer Huntington financed a new building, designed by Charles E. Birge, to hold the collection’s book stacks and staff offices. This three-story, 40’ x 82’ building is attached to the original building. It does not have public areas.
Inside the Reading Room. Visitors entering the Reading Room are greeted by a large raised engraving (1911) by B.L. Pratt of Collis Potter Huntington, dedicating the building to his memory. An oil painting of Huntington presented to the library by the citizens of West Chester in 1893 is over the fireplace. Covering the fireplace is a large-scale map, Throgg’s Neck in the 1850s, drawn by Bronx historian John McNamara. The original Visitors Register has its own stand and is in use today. The first signatures date to 1891. Booker T. Washington registered as a visitor in 1892 and 1894. The furniture in the library is in keeping with its turn-of-the-century character. Much of it is original. The piping for the reading room’s original gas lighting is most obvious in the small book stack room in the rear. A wood sculpture of the library, carved by Patrolman John H. Jones in 1901, sits on top of a bookshelf. The large map case and the library’s card catalog are still in use. Other items of interest include vintage typewriters, one a very early electric model, and a 1917 Tiffany grandfather’s clock.
Contact the Library
Huntington Free Library and Reading Room
9 Westchester Square
Bronx, NY 10461-3583
(718) 829-7770 • Fax (718) 829-4875
Support the Library
The library encourages contributions for its programs and for general support. It is currently soliciting funding to restore the windows, hanging pendant, and front doors in its 1882 New York City Landmark building. Please make checks payable to the Huntington Free Library and Reading Room. All donations are tax-deductible to the extent allowed by law. Your support will be greatly appreciated.
The Huntington Free Library and Reading Room has two separate non-circulating book collections: a general Reading Room collection and a specialization in Bronx history.
Established in 1892, the Huntington Free Library is one of the oldest libraries for the public in the Bronx. Until 1937 when the New York Public Library established a branch nearby, it was the only library in the Westchester Square area, and maintained a collection suitable to a general reading room. Since that time, acquisitions have also complemented the needs of the Huntington Free Library's Indian collection.
The Reading Room collection, comprising approximately 7100 volumes, is housed in open stacks in the Reading Room. The collection is catalogued in the Dewey decimal system and is accessible through a card catalog. The library staff has judiciously added to and weeded the collection over the years. Nonetheless, its character is one of the turn-of-the-century, with many of its imprints dating to the period between 1860 and 1930. Fiction, biographies, bibliographies, American history books, books on philosophy and art, American Indian juvenile books, and volumes on the natural sciences and library science comprise many of the subject areas covered. The Reading Room's general reference collection also includes modern dictionaries, encyclopedias, atlases, directories, almanacs, etc.
In recent years library staff members have concentrated on acquiring general reference, American Indian juvenile literature, Western American art, and New York State history titles with the limited funds available, feeling these materials are appropriate in the environment of a non-circulating collection.
The Reading Room's collection of materials relating to New York State history, with an emphasis on that of the Bronx, is the most heavily consulted segment of its holdings. Titles range from privately printed accounts such as Bronx Cheer: A Memoir, by Julius Jacobs (1976), The History of the Morris Park Racecourse and the Morris Family, by Nicholas Di Brino (1977), and Westchester's Forgotten Railway, by Roger Arcara (1972), to standard works like The Bronx and Its People: A History (1927), The Story of the Bronx, by Stephen Jenkins (1912), and The Borough of the Bronx, 1639-1913, by Harry Cook (1913). The breadth of New York history is reflected in the collection, beginning with works on its archaeology such as Alanson Skinner's Exploration of Aboriginal Sites at Throgs Neck and Clasons Point, New York City (1919), and William Ritchie's The Pre-Iroquoian Occupations of New York State. Historical figures are not forgotten. Three titles, for example, deal with the controversy surrounding an infamous Bronx resident, Anne Hutchinson, while several others discuss the Pell family. A collection of newspaper articles, authored primarily by John McNamara, spans a forty-year period and reflects the on-going record of Bronx history. Arranged chronologically, the collection is indexed geographically, providing easy access to articles discussing a particular Bronx neighborhood.
This special Reading Room collection is not limited to the Bronx. Several of its titles are guidebooks, gazetteers, and manuals covering all of New York City and/or including the State of New York as a whole. D.T. Valentine's Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York for 1856, for example, is complemented by subsequent editions patterned after that classic work. J. H. French's Gazetteer of the State of New York (1860) expands coverage such as Valentine's to include the entire state. New York's history is also accessible through heavily used works such as the Historical Atlas of New York State. The collection also holds a modern atlas of New York. New York City guidebooks abound in this collection. Readers can get a real sense of what the city was like in 1892 by consulting Moses King's King's Handbook of New York City. On a more practical level, recently published guidebooks such as New York Open to the Public lead readers to today's information. Both are complimented by works such as the Federal Writers' Project publications.
The library has a growing collection of historic photographs of the Bronx, particularly of the Westchester Square area. Ships and coal barges in Westchester Creek, the 1922 World War I Honor Roll in the Square, and transportation ranging from horse-drawn hearses to the construction of the elevated railroad are featured in this collection, as is the birthplace of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University. The Westchester Square area was the scene of a great deal of activity during the Revolutionary War. Sites associated with many well-known Bronx names from the colonial era, such as Pell, Ferris, and Ponton, appear in the library’s photograph collection. The library has put much of this collection on slides. It regularly hosts programs featuring its photographs.
Finding Aids to Manuscript Collections
The library has produced finding aids to many of its manuscript collections. In the cases where they were microfilmed, the guide to the collection often includes reel and frame numbers for the items listed. These indications are included here to give the reader an idea of the length of the document described. Microfilm reels of these collections are available from the library on interlibrary loan.
· Constance Goddard Du Bois Papers
· Edward H. Davis Papers
· Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition Papers
· Hendricks-Hodge Archaeological Expedition Field Notes
· Joseph Keppler Iroquois Papers
. Warner D. Miller Papers
· Clarence B. Moore Field Notes
· Stockbridge Indian Papers
· William Wallace Tooker Papers
· Wabanaki Indian Collection
· Women’s National Indian Association Papers
Subject File Collection
Over the years the library has accumulated a large body of ephemeral material, currently housed in vertical files and organized by subject. Journal articles, pamphlets, government documents, newspaper clippings, auction catalogs, and early correspondence are among the types of items in this collection that is not catalogued. It contains a wealth of information and is heavily used by researchers. The library also has biography files for information on prominent Native Americans, past and present, and others who are connected to the field of Indian studies.
· New York City Indians, by Mary B. Davis
· Taino Indians, by Bobby Gonzalez
NATIVE AMERICANS OF THE
NEW YORK METROPOLITAN AREA
Mary B. Davis
The books listed below are intended as a beginning aid to those interested in New York City's Native Americans. While some of the principal works on the archaeology of the area have been included, the emphasis here is on the people themselves. Journal articles are not included; many further leads to research will, of course, be found in the bibliographies of the works cited. The initials following the collations indicate New York City libraries where each title may be found.
Abrams, H. Leon. A Partial Working Bibliography on the Amerindians of New York. Greeley, CO: Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, 1979. (Museum of Anthropology miscellaneous series 22). 31p. AMNH, HFL, NYPL
Entries are largely on New York State archaeology.
Bolton, Reginald Pelham. Indian Life of Long Ago in the City of New York. New York: J. Graham, 1934. (Reprint, Harmony House, New York, 1972). 167p. AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
The language in this work is dated, but it is excellent for placing New York's original peoples in areas familiar to us today. Includes many vocabulary items.
_____. Indian Paths in the Great Metropolis. New York: Museum of the American Indian, l922 (Indian notes and monographs miscellaneous 23). 2 vol. AMNH, BM, HFL, NYPL
This work, which contains many maps showing former Native American trails, is hard to locate. Copies in the Huntington Free Library have maps in good condition.
AMNH American Museum of Natural History
BM Brooklyn Museum
BPL Brooklyn Public Library
HFL Huntington Free Library (Library of the National Museum of the American Indian)
MM Mid-Manhattan Public Library
NYPL New York Public Library Research Libraries
Bolton, Reginald Pelham. New York City in Indian Possession. New York: Museum of the American Indian, 1920. (Reprinted by the Museum, 1975). 170p. AMNH, BM, HFL, NYPL
This book gives political affiliations and locations of metropolitan-area tribes as understood in 1920. It also includes native names as recorded in deeds for sales of land.
Denton, Daniel. A Brief Description of New York, Formerly Called New Netherlands. Introduction by Felix Neumann. Cleveland: Burrows Brothers, 1902. 63p. (First published in 1670). AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
This short account describes New York as it appeared in 1670. The author's account of native inhabitants shows the changes brought about by 50 years of co-existence with Europeans. Descriptions of ongoing customs are included.
Donck, Adriaen van der. A Description of the New Netherlands. Thomas F. O'Donnell, ed. Ithaca, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1968. (First published in 1655). AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
A description of the topography, flora, and fauna of this part of the new world. The author includes detailed descriptions of the peoples he observed.
The Encyclopedia of New York City, edited by Kenneth T. Jackson. New Haven: Yale University Press, New York: The New-York Historical Society, 1975.
Contains an article on the history of the Indians of New York City, “American Indians,” by Robert S. Grumet.
Glimpses of Algonkian Culture; Indians of Southern New York State. New York: Museum of the American Indian, 1982. v.p. HFL
A teacher's resource kit developed for a travelling exhibition on Long Island's Native Americans.
Grumet, Robert Steven. Native American Place Names in New York City. New York: Museum of the City of New York, 1981. 79p. BM, HFL, NYPL
A scholarly discussion of Native American names and place names associated with New York City. It is also useful for establishing locations and interrelationships of New York's native groups.
The Indians of Greater New York and the Lower Hudson, edited by Clark Wissler. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1909. (Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 3). 242p. AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
This volume gives information on archaeological sites on Staten Island and Manhattan Island, including Washington Heights. Discussions of New York and New Jersey rock shelters, and the archaeology of the New York coastal Algonquians are included. Detailed maps increase this work's value for today's researchers.
Jameson, J. Franklin, ed. Narratives of New Netherland: 1609-1644. New York: Charles Scribner's, 1909. (Reprinted by Barnes and Noble, 1967). 478p. AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
A collection of early descriptions of New York and its native peoples. Descriptions like these are the first we have of New York's native peoples.
Mitchell, Joseph, "The Mohawks in high steel." In Edmund Wilson, Apologies to the Iroquois, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Cudahy, 1959. AMNH, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
A history of the involvement of Mohawk people in high steel construction, particularly in New York City. It includes a brief description of the Brooklyn Mohawk community in the late 1940's.
Neighbors and Intruders: An Ethnohistorical Exploration of the Indians of Hudson's River, edited by Laurence M. Hauptman and Jack Campisi. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, l978. 285p. (Canadian Ethnology service paper 39). HFL, NYPL
Papers included in this collection follow the history of New York's native peoples from pre-contact times through their dispersion to other areas. This is another good source for determining interrelationships of New York's aboriginal peoples.
O'Callaghan, Edmund Burke and Berthold Fernow, eds. Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York. Albany, NY, 1856-1887. 15 vols. AMNH, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
These volumes contain records of the transactions of the Dutch and English with New York's Native Americans during the colonial period. A primary source of historical information for that period.
Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory. Stony Brook, NY: Suffolk County Archaeological Association, 1977-. AMNH, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
In this ongoing series, the editors have located and reprinted scattered and difficult to find articles on Long Island Indians. The series includes volumes on the Montauk and Shinnecock tribes, one on languages and legends of the area, and others on its archaeology.
Ritchie, William A. The Archaeology of New York State. Garden City, NY: Natural History Press, 1969, c. 1965. 253p. AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
This is the classic work on the archaeology of New York State.
Ruttenber, Edward Manning. History of the Indian Tribes of Hudson's River. Albany: J. Munsell, 1872. (Reprinted by Kennikat Press, Port Washington, NY, 1971). 241p. AMNH, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
Tribal relationships given here have been challenged by modern scholars. It is still a good source for information on particular historical figures and events.
Salomon, Julian Harris. Indians of the Lower Hudson Region: The Munsee. New City, NY: Historical Society of Rockland County, 1982. 93p. AMNH, HFL, NYPL
A nicely illustrated description of the history and daily life of the Indians of the area. It includes a chapter on the Native Americans living in the Ramapo Mountains today.
Skinner, Alanson. Archaeological Investigations on Manhattan Island, New York City. New York: Museum of the American Indian, 1920. (Indian notes and monographs, vol. 2, no. 6), p. 125-218. AMNH, BM, HFL, NYPL
The author discusses several archaeological sites in Manhattan and the Bronx, with an in-depth look into the Inwood village site and its history. A discussion of types of artifacts excavated is included.
--------. Exploration of Aboriginal Sites at Throgs Neck and Clasons Point, New York City. New York: Museum of the American Indian, 1919. (Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, vol. 5, no. 4), p. 47-126. BM, HFL, NYPL
This volume describes archaeological excavations carried out at these Bronx sites in the early 1900s. The inclusion of maps of the sites along with early accounts of their inhabitants make this volume useful to scholars today.
--------. Indians of Greater New York. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1915. 150p. AMNH, BM, HFL, NYPL
The author recounts the daily lives of New York's Native American groups, using the accounts of many of the first European visitors to the area to illustrate his points. This is a particularly well-done depiction of the life of the City's original inhabitants at the time of first contact with Occidental culture.
--------. The Indians of Manhattan Island and Vicinity. 6th ed. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1947. (Science guide 41, first published in 1915). 63p. AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
In this book, which was intended as a guide to the exhibits at the American Museum of Natural History, the author briefly discusses the Native American population of New York City. The types of artifacts found in various City archaeological excavations are described in some detail, and individual Manhattan sites are also discussed.
Strong, John A. The Algonquian Peoples of Long Island from Earliest Times to 1700. Interlaken, NY: Empire State Books, 1997.
An overview of the Native occupation of Long Island from pre-contact times to 1700. This well-organized volume integrates historical data with the latest archaeological evidence.
Strong, John A. We Are Still Here! The Algonquian Peoples of Long Island Today. Interlaken, NY: Empire State Books, 1996.
The Indians living on Long Island today are proud survivors. This is an excellent
volume for learning about the issues that are important to the Shinnecock, Unkechaug, Montaukett, and Matinecock peoples.
Trelease, Allen W. Indian Affairs in Colonial New York: The Seventeenth Century. Ithaca, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1960. 379p. AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
A history of Indian relations with the Dutch and English during this period. Includes fairly detailed accounts of the local wars between the Native Americans and Europe's colonial powers.
Trigger, Bruce G., ed. Northeast, vol. 15, Handbook of North American Indians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. 924p. AMNH, BM, BPL, HFL, MM, NYPL
This is an important reference work on eastern Indians. Articles on the native peoples of southern New England and Long Island, the Mahican, and the Delaware are particularly relevant to the study of New York City's Native Americans.
Weslager, Clinton Alfred. The Delaware Indians; A History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1972. 546p. AMNH,BM, BPL, HFL, NYPL
As New York City's original peoples were part of the Delaware family, books about Delaware life describe, in large part, the life of New York's Indians as well. This book contains a good account of the Delaware people in the 20th century, their history, and their lives and belief system at the time of first contact with Europeans.
Compiled October 1987; edited October 1996.
TAINO INDIAN READING LIST*
Compiled by Bobby Gonzalez
Alegría, Ricardo E. 1983. Historia de Nuestro Indios. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Coleccion de Estudios Puertorriqueños. 84p. Illus.
Basic book on social life and customs of Taino Indians of Puerto Rico. Written for grade school children but serves as an excellent introduction for interested adults as well. Available in Spanish or English. (F 1969 .A36H).
Alvarez Nazario, Manuel. 1996. Arqueología Lingüística: estudio modernos dirigidos al rescate y reconstruction del arahuaco taíno. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico. 145p.
Study and reconstruction of Taino language of the Caribbean. Comparative examination of Carib and Arawak idioms. Text in Spanish. (PM 7093 .A47R).
Cundall, Frank. 1894. The Story of the Life of Columbus and the Discovery of Jamaica.
Kingston: The Institute of Jamaica: Date Tree Hall, 79p. Illus.
A short sketch of Jamaica and its original inhabitants, the Arawaks. Looks at plant and animal life of the island and the language, dress and ornament, legends, and religion of the indigenous people. (F 1884 .C972H).
Ferbel, Peter J. 1995. "The Politics of Taino Indian Heritage in the Post-Quincentennial
Dominican Republic: when a canoe means more than a water trough." Ann Arbor: UMI Dissertation Services. 210p. Illus.
Identification of the dynamics involved in the manipulation of the pre-Columbian past in the Dominican Republic and analysis of the effects on contemporary Taino identity. Discusses indigenous cultural traits in the contemporary Dominican Republic. (F 1909 .F34 1995).
Fewkes, Jesse Walter. 1907. The Aborigines of Porto Rico and Neighboring Islands. In U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology 25th annual report. 220p. Illus.
Exhaustive study of Taino Indians of Puerto Rico from an archaeological perspective. Social life, customs and myths are detailed. Contains 93 pages of photographs and illustrations. (X, F 1969 .F432).
Hanke, Lewis. 1935. The First Social Experiment in America: a study in the development of Spanish Indian policy in the sixteenth century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 93p.
Study of experimental policy of Spanish government in Espanola and Cuba between 1503-1535. Natives were permitted limited self-government on trial basis. (F 1411 .H35).
Harrington, M.R. 1921. Cuba Before Columbus. New York: Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation. 2v. Illus.
An account of archaeological explorations conducted in Cuba in 1915 and 1919. Includes a brief review of the life and customs of the pre-Columbian inhabitants of this island, contrasting indigenous Cuban customs with those of the modern Arawaks of Guyana and Surinam. (F 1769 .H311C).
Keegan, William F., editor. 1991. Earliest Hispanic/Native American Interaction in the
Caribbean. New York: Garland Publishing. 382p.
Collection of scholarly articles and extracts of historical documents organized in four sections: Caribbean Cultures at Contact, Caribbean Ethnohistory, Historical Demography, and the Consequences of Contact. (F 1619 .H67).
Keegan, William F. 1992. The People Who Discovered Columbus: the prehistory of the
Bahamas. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. 279p. Illus.
Portrait of the pre-contact culture of the indigenous people of the Bahamas. Draws information from archaeological field data and historical documents. (F 1655 .K26 1992).
Kerchache, Jacques. 1994. L'Art des Sculpteurs Taïnos: chefs-d'oeuvre des Grandes Antilles precolombiennes. Paris: Musée Du Petit Palais. 269p.
Profusely illustrated catalog of 1994 Taino art exhibition at Musée du Petit Palais. Text in French. (X F 1619.2 .T3 A78).
Loven, Sven. 1935. Origins of the Tainan culture, West Indies. Goteborg: Elanders Bokfryckeri Akfiebolag. 696p. Illus.
In depth consideration of Tainan culture throughout the Caribbean area. Highlights all aspect of Tainan society including agriculture, economic development, and burial customs. Extensive study of stone artifacts and ceramics. (F 1619.2 .T3 L91).
Morison, Samuel Eliot. 1942. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: a life of Christopher Columbus.
Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. 680p.
Definitive biography of Columbus. Describes the explorer's first impressions of the Indians he encountered in the Antilles. The Tainos of Cuba and Hispaniola are examined closely. (E 111 .M86).
Nicholson, Desmond V. 1983. The Story of the Arawaks in Antiqua and Barbuda. Antiqua: Antiqua Archaeological Society. 36p. Illus.
An account of the life of the Indians in these islands a thousand years ago. Describes the lifestyles of the Arawaks, including their art, music, and religion. Contains tables of native plants and a chronology of important dates. (X F 2035 .N65).
Olsen, Fred. 1974. On the Trail of the Arawaks. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 217p. Illus.
The author's search for the origins of the Arawaks of the Greater Antilles. Special focus on significance of cultivation of manioc and the ball game. Interesting chapter which describes a typical day in an Arawak community, ca. A.D. 1490. (F 2220.2 .O53).
Oviedo y Valdes, Gonzalo Fernández de. 1975. The Conquest and Settlement of the Island of Boriquen or Puerto Rico. Avon, CT: Limited Editions Club. 143p. Illus.
Translation of a classic account written in the 1520's. A chronicle of Taino resistance to the Spanish invasion. Important because the writer documents rites and ceremonies of the Indians and their sacred ball game. (X F 1973 .O96).
Pané, Ramón. 1978. Relación Acerca de las Antiguedades de los Indios. Mexico City: Siglo Veintinuno Editores. Edited by Jose Juan Arrom. 125p.
Ethnological study of the Tainos of Espanola done in the late 1490-'s. Description of Indian ceremonies and myths. Comprehensive footnotes and appendices. Text in Spanish. (F 1619 .P19).
Priego, Joaquin R. 1977. Cultura Taína. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Publicaciones America. 260p. Illus.
Study of Pre-Columbian Taino culture with emphasis on history of Natives of the Dominican Republic. Contains biographical sketches of major Taino chieftains who ruled at the time of European encounter. Text in Spanish. (F 1619.2 .T3 P95).
Revista Interamericana. Fall 1978. Hato Rey, Puerto Rico: Inter-American University Press. 510p. Illus.
Special issue of Revista magazine with articles on the Tainos written by top scholars in the field. In Spanish and English. Study of Indians from perspectives of archaeology, social life, politics, and history. (F 1612 .T3 R45).
Robio Lamarche, Sebastián. 1992. Encuentro con la Mitología Taína. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Editorial Punto y Coma. 80p. Illus.
An easy-to-read study of Taino mythology. Summarizes indigenous beliefs and customs. Among topics discussed are Taino astronomy, navigation, cultural heroes, and principal dieties. Text in Spanish. (F 1619.2 .T3 R66).
Rouse, Irving. 1992. The Tainos: rise and decline of the people who greeted Columbus. New Haven: Yale University Press. 211p. Illus.
Archaeological and ethnohistorical sketch of the Tainos, contrasting their customs with those of their neighbors. Discusses present survival and revival of Taino cultures. In-depth bibliography. (F 1619.2 .T3 R86).
Scott, John F. 1985. The Art of the Taino from the Dominican Republic. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida. n.p. Illus.
Catalogue of an exhibition of Taino art at the University of Florida's Center for Latin American Studies. Photographs of Taino artifacts are accompanied by discussions of the significance of these pieces. (F 1619.2 .T3 S42).
Stevens-Arroyo, Antonio M. 1988. Cave of the Jaqua: the mythological world of the Tainos. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 282p. Illus.
Scholarly book on the mythology and religious system of pre-Columbian Tainos. Uses unusual Jungian analysis of mythology. The author reproduces Taino myths in scripture form. (F 1619.2 .T3 S84).
Tyler, S. Tyman. 1988. Two Worlds: the Indian encounter with the Europeans, 1492-1509. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. 258p.
An Account of the first contacts between the Natives of the West Indies and the European explorers. The book presents texts from the period which portray the Indians as the Europeans saw them. Among the important characters described are Taino leaders, Guacanagari and Anacaona. (E 118 .T98).
Weeks, John M. and Peter J. Ferbel. 1994. Ancient Caribbean. New York, New York: Garland. 325p.
Complete bibliography of books and articles on the Native Peoples of the Caribbean. Headings of sections arranged geographically according to islands (Puerto Rico, Cuba, etc.). (F 1619 .W39).
Wilson, Samuel M. 1990. Hispaniola: Caribbean chiefdoms in the age of Columbus.
Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama. 170p.
An examination of the early years of the contact period in the Caribbean. In narrative form, the book reconstructs the social and political organization of the Tainos. (F 1692 .T3 W75).
Wright, I.A. 1916. The Early History of Cuba, 1492-1586. New York: The Macmillan
Company. 390p. Illus.
Compiled from the Archives of the Indies in Seville, Spain, the author has translated hitherto unpublished material. The book closely examines the system of bondage of the Natives known as the repartimento. (F 1779 .W74).
*The call numbers at the end of each entry are those used at the Huntington Free Library.
Carpenter, Cecelia Svinth. How to Research American Indian Blood Lines.
Orting, WA: Heritage Quest (P.O. Box 40, Orting, WA 98360-0040), 1987.
Ethnic Genealogy: A Research Guide, Edited by Jessie Carney Smith.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Hill, Edward E., comp. Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United
States Relating to American Indians. Washington, DC: National Archives
And Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
Kirkman, E. Kay. Our Native Americans & Their Records of Genealogical Value.
(2 vol.) Logan, Utah: The Everton Publishers, Inc. (P.O. Box 368, Logan, UT 84321), 1980, 1984.
The Journal of American Indian Family Research, edited by Larry S. Watson.
Yuma, AZ: HISTREE (P.O. Box 5982, Yuma, AZ 85366-5982), 1980-ongoing.
Morningstar, Heather. How to Enroll in an Indian Tribe. Denver: Arrowstar
Publishing (10134 University Park Station, Denver, CO 80210-0134), 1993.
Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Washington, DC: Smith-
sonian Institution (Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145, 1952). Reprint, Smithsonian Institution, 1979. This book is especially good for determining where Individual Native American groups were located in each State.
January 18, 7:30. "The 75th. Anniversary of Orchard Beach and the Art Deco Pavilion", presented by Deborah Wye. EBHF
January 21, 12:30-3:00 - "Greeting Cards With Laura Alvarez". Learn how to create your own original greeting cards. Fun for all ages. BCA
February 15, 7:30. "The Bronx River's Afro-American Heritage in 50 Golden Moments", presented by Morgan Powell. EBHF
February 18, 12:30 -3:00 - "Mask Making With Lucrecia Novoa". Join mask maker extraordinaire Lucrecia and create an original mask to wear or display. Fun for all ages. BCA
March 17, 12:30-3:00 - "Recycle Art With Star Nigro". Learn cool and cleaver ways to make great eco-logical art. Construct a masterpiece by creatively recycling old and new elements. Fun for all ages. BCA
March 21, 7:30. "Anne Hutchinson and Women in Bronx History", presented by various members of The East Bronx History Forum. EBHF
April 21, 12:30-3:00 - "Mother's Day Gifts With Denise Shelly". Create a handmade gift for yourself or someone you love. Re-purposed and new materials will be combined to make a memorable Mother's Day treasure. Fun for all ages. BCA
April 18, 7:30. Joe Tassiello, Wakefield Subway Yard Barn Chief is your guide for a behind-the-scenes look at the New York City Transit System. EBHF
May 16, 7:30. "The Lost Synagogues of the Bronx", presented by Ellen Levitt. EBHF